Calendar of Racism and Resistance (22 November – 6 December 2022)

Calendar of Racism and Resistance (22 November – 6 December 2022)


Written by: IRR News Team

A fortnightly resource for anti-racist and social justice campaigns, highlighting key events in the UK and Europe. Find these stories and all others since 2014 on our searchable database, the Register of Racism and Resistance.


Asylum and migrant rights

23 November: Home secretary Suella Braverman is unable to answer asylum questions by MPs on the Home Affairs Committee, including on Manston, the Rwanda scheme and the lack of safe, legal routes to reach the UK. (UK Parliament, 23 November 2022; West Country Voices, 23 November 2022)

25 November: New figures show that 140,000 people await a decision on their UK asylum application, three times higher than in 2019, with the vast majority of those arriving in small boats yet to be considered, while over 75 per cent of applications are granted. (Independent, 25 November 2022) 

30 November: Traveller support group Pavee Point criticises the racism and discriminatory treatment of Roma from Ukraine in Ireland; it has recorded 11 cases where Ukrainian Roma families were initially refused Temporary Protection Status. (, 30 November 2022)

1 December: Dozens of asylum seekers removed from the Manston reception centre are left stranded outside Lunar House, Croydon after receiving an apparently ‘phantom appointment’ for an asylum interview from the Home Office. (Guardian, 1 December 2022)

Campaigners shine a light on Lunar House. Image credit: @migrantsorg as PI and BID were also involved

3 December: Not a single person has been accepted and evacuated under the government’s Afghan citizens’ resettlement scheme (ACRS) launched in January, leaving vulnerable Afghans and those who assisted UK efforts at risk from torture and death, a joint Observer/ Lighthouse Reports investigation reveals. (Guardian, 3 December 2022)

4 December: Iraqi refugee Najat Ibrahim Ismail, who was prosecuted and subjected to attempted deportation three times in 2019 for bringing his 7-month-old niece to the UK for treatment for severe burns sustained in Dunkirk, is finally granted the right to stay in the UK. (Guardian, 4 December 2022)

Borders and internal controls

23 November: An investigation by Le Monde reveals that the Libyan coastguard uses Frontex aerial surveillance to intercept migrant boats, although the EU border agency has always denied any such collaboration. (Le Monde, 23 November 2022)

24 November: Relatives of the 32 people who died as their dinghy sank in British waters write to Rishi Sunak on the first anniversary of the tragedy, along with rights groups, trade unions, MPs and others, calling for justice, while vigils are held and campaigners demand safe routes. (Guardian, 24 November 2022; Independent, 24 November 2022; Guardian, 24 November 2022) 

24 November: Authorities in Lithuania and Belarus push barefoot migrants back and forth across their borders, leaving hundreds trapped in a camp set up between two countries in sub-zero temperatures, some losing limbs to frostbite. (AP News, 24 November 2022)

27 November: Grupa Granica says that since the erection of a wall at Poland’s border with Belarus, each week it responds to 100-200 requests for help, treating leg injuries from falls, cuts from razor wire and an increase in hypothermia cases. At least 27 people are confirmed to have died on the Polish-Belarus border, with around 190 people missing. (Coda Story, 27 November 2022)

29 November: A joint investigation by El País and Lighthouse Reports, using 140 videos, 40 interviews and a 3D reconstruction, gives new insights into the deaths of at least 23 people at the border of Spain’s Melilla enclave in June.  (El País, 29 November 2022)

30 November: Politicians including the EU’s former policy chief Federica Mogherini, current and former interior and prime ministers of Italy and Malta are named in a criminal complaint to the International Criminal Court by German NGO European Centre for Constitutional and Human Rights, alleging crimes against humanity by conspiring with the Libyan coastguard to intercept refugees in the Mediterranean and push them back to detention and torture in Libya. (Guardian, 30 November 2022)

1 December: Privacy International reveals that Buddi Ltd was awarded a public contract in May under the Home Office Satellite Tracking Service for ‘smartwatches’ that record 24/7 location data based on biometric scanning of individuals on immigration bail. (Privacy International, 1 December 2022)

Reception and detention

24 November: As human rights groups share footage of dreadful conditions in Home Office-run hotels for people seeking asylum, a Greater Manchester hotel reports a scabies outbreak and a London charity has issued 500 rape alarms to women living in hotels following allegations of rape and sexual assault. (ITV News, 24 November 2022)

24 November: In Brussels, Belgium, Médecins Sans Frontières sets up mobile clinics to address cases of scabies, diphtheria and rising mental health problems among street-homeless asylum seekers. (Euro News, 24 November 2022) 

25 November: As East Wall residents in Dublin, Ireland, call protests about the housing of asylum seekers from Ukraine in an old building, the minister for finance meets them to discuss their concerns, though the media point to possible far-right involvement. (RTE, 25 November 2022)

27 November: The Refugee Council reveals that the Home Office is routinely adding years to the dates of birth of children claiming asylum, to place them in inappropriate, unsafe adult accommodation. (Observer, 27 November 2022)

27 November: As the Home Office says the death of a man at Manston the previous week may have been from diphtheria, cases spread as it emerges that dozens of infected people were moved out to hotels around the UK. (Independent, 27 November 2022; Independent, 27 November 2022)

27 November: Health concerns are reported on two ships in Scotland holding 1750 Ukrainian refugees in cramped conditions, as a man and his son, who has scarlet fever, are quarantined but others on the ship not warned. (Observer, 27 November 2022) 

27 November: A new website, Asylum Seeker Memorial Project, will tell the stories of the 140 people who have died in Home Office accommodation since 2016 awaiting a decision on their asylum application, as the Home Office does not publish statistics of those who die in their care. (Independent, 27 November 2022)

28 November: People seeking asylum and showing any symptoms of diphtheria are being held in ‘secure isolation hotels’ as the UK Health Agency confirms 50 identified cases. (Guardian, 28 November 2022; Ely Standard, 28 November 2022

29 November: In an open letter, 44 migrant, refugee and rights charities call for a Windrush-style inquiry into the failings at Manston, and the Council of Europe’s Committee for the Prevention of Torture makes a rare ‘rapid reaction’ visit to the centre. More criticism comes from the chair of the Independent Monitoring Boards. (Guardian, 29 November 2022; Guardian, 29 November 2022; Guardian, 30 November 2022)

1 December: Doctors Without Borders (MSF) warn of the dangers posed to the health of asylum seekers by government plans to create Greek-style ‘closed-controlled access’ reception centres in Britain. (Morning Star, 1 December 2022) 

2 December: The Scottish government says Ukrainian refugees will be accommodated on the ship MS Victoria, docked in Edinburgh, until June 2023, because of the shortage of accommodation. (National, 2 December 2022)

3 December 2022: 31-year-old Hussain Haseeb Ahmed is named as the man who died after testing positive for diphtheria at the Manston reception centre. (Guardian, 3 December 2022)  

Communities not Camps banner outsider Home Office with candles on top of it
A vigil held outside the Home Office after the death of Hussein Haseeb Ahmed. Image credit: SOAS Detainee Support.

3 December: Freedom of Information requests show that 39 unaccompanied child migrants from Albania in care with Kent County Council have gone missing. (Independent, 3 December 2022)

4 December: Campaigners and local midwives say pregnant asylum seekers at a Home Office hotel in Stevenage suffer multiple difficulties in accessing medical support, putting their health at risk. Ros Bragg of Maternity Action says these conditions are mirrored in hotels across the country. (Independent, 4 December 2022) 

4 December: A report from the Independent Monitoring Board, published this week following an inspection of Kent processing centres in October, finds that detainees have been unable to wash for days and a teenage girl will likely be scarred for life from fuel burns left untreated. (Independent, 4 December 2022)

4 December: Humberside’s Police and Crime Commissioner says asylum seekers are more likely to be victims of crime than perpetrators, following the arrival of former Manston residents at local hotels after the council’s bid to prevent it failed. (Hull Daily Mail, 5 December 2022)

5 December: Home Office figures show that the use of much-criticised short-term detention facilities has tripled in a year, with 3,000 held at Colnbrook, Yarl’s Wood, Manchester and Larne House, Antrim, while immigration detainees held in prisons have risen to a six-year high of 3,340. (Metro, 5 December 2022)

6 December: Serco puts out a call to landlords in the Midlands, the northwest and east of England for properties, including houses of multiple occupation (HMOs), care homes, former student halls and private houses, for asylum accommodation. (Stoke on Trent Live, 6 December 2022)

6 December: An HMIP unannounced inspection report criticises ‘unprofessional’ use of force and inconsistent care for women at risk of self-harm or suicide at Derwentside Immigration Removal Centre, Co. Durham. (HM Inspectorate of Prisons, 6 December 2022)


28 November: State interior ministers across Germany agree to stop deportations to Iran until further notice. (Deutsche Welle, 28 November 2022)

2 December: The Cyprus authorities say 7,000 migrants, most of whom cross from Northern Cyprus, have been repatriated since January, making it the EU country with the highest repatriation rate per capita. (InfoMigrants, 2 December 2022)

3 December:  A man who fled to Sweden following his conviction in Turkey for PKK membership is extradited to Turkey and immediately arrested. (Deutsche Welle, 3 December 2022) 


As anti-migrant, anti-equalities, anti-abortion, misogynistic and anti-LGBTQI rhetoric in electoral campaigning are increasingly interlinked, we reflect this in the coverage below which also includes information on the influence of the Christian Right as well as the religious Right generally.

24 November: A Conservative party investigation into four serving councillors and a former councillor in Hertsmere finds them guilty of ‘negative campaigning’ in a 2020 by-election, linked to antisemitic abuse on social media against Labour party councillor Dan Ozarow. (Hertfordshire Mercury, 24 November 2022)

28 November: Following the deployment of riot police in Brussels and elsewhere to quell disturbances after Belgium loses 2-0 to Morocco in the World Cup, the Flemish justice minister (N-VA) questions immigration policy, tweeting this ‘is yet another demonstration by a group that feels untouchable and wants to make it clear “the streets are ours”’. (Brussels Times, 28 November 2022)

5 December: A Centre for Policy Studies report with a foreword by Suella Braverman calls for indefinite detention, offshoring and a ban on asylum claims or settlement for those arriving in small boats, proposals UNHCR condemns as factually and legally wrong and breaching the Refugee Convention. The CPS report contemplates leaving the European Convention on Human Rights if necessary.  (Guardian, 5 December 2022; UNHCR, 5 December 2022; Independent, 5 December 2022)

5 December: Refugee rights groups react with dismay as Labour leader Keir Starmer endorses the use of GPS tagging of asylum seekers, described as ‘psychological torture’ by experts and charities. (Independent, 5 December 2022)


With anti-migrant, anti-Muslim, anti-equalities, anti-abortion, misogynistic and anti-LGBTQI activities increasingly interlinking, we now incorporate information on the Christian Right as well as the religious Right generally.

23 November:  StreetPress researchers expose the French Catholic fundamentalist association SOS Calvaires’ links to far-right Youtube ‘influencers’ as well as Rassemblement National politicians. (Streetpress, 23 November 2022) 

24 November: After Hope Not Claims that 250 people had bought tickets to a Nazi Blood & Honour event in Bathgate, West Lothian, the Midnight Breakfast Club closes down for the weekend citing ‘safety fears’ due to ‘unfounded rumours’. (Scottish Sun, 24 November 2022)

30 November: In Italy, three members of neo-Nazi chat group Blocco Est Europa are arrested for sharing racist and misogynistic content that praised school shooters and called for a training campaign for attacks against institutions. (ANSA, 30 November 2022)

1 December: Daniel Harris, 19, from Derbyshire, is found guilty of terrorism offences after uploading extreme right-wing videos to the internet and being found in possession of a 3D printer to make a firearm. (BBC News, 1 December 2022)


24 November: Following an IOPC investigation, three Gwent police officers are suspended over allegations of sharing misogynistic, racist and homophobic messages. (Sky News, 24 November 2022)

25 November: The family of Errol McKenzie, shot dead in east London in 2010, criticise the failed police investigation, alleging racism and questioning why anti-gangs Operation Trident detectives were involved in the investigation when it was acknowledged that Errol was not a member of a gang. (Metro, 25 November 2022)

28 November: The family of Oladeji Omishore, who fell into the Thames and drowned after being tasered by police on Chelsea Bridge while experiencing a mental health crisis, take the IOPC to court in a test case alleging unlawful failure to properly investigate the two officers involved, who remain on full operational duties and are treated as witnesses. (Guardian, 28 November 2022)

Families outside 10 Downing Street at UFFC rally in July 2022. Image credit: Justice for Oladeji Omishore

29 November: French police officer Cédric G is charged with indecent exposure and unlawful use of violence, as video evidence shows him abusing and beating a 16-year-old black teenager during Covid restrictions, and allegations that he urinated on the teenager and another boy, as another officer racially abused them. (Al Jazeera, 29 November 2022)

29 November: A judge asks the Lancashire police chief to explain why an innocent 88-year-old man, Fazad Dad Choudhury, who shared his name with a man due to stand trial for fraud, was wrongly detained and forced to take two trips to a court in Luton. (BBC News, 29 November 2022)

1 December: The Met, admitting no liability, pays damages to black brothers Nicholas and Leon Peart, stopped and searched and handcuffed outside their Chingford home on Leon’s 18th birthday in April 2020. One officer involved, later found to be a key player in a hate message group, has now been dismissed. (Guardian, 1 December 2022) 

1 December: Research by Victim Support finds that half of BME domestic abuse victims feel that police failed to take complaints seriously. (Independent, 1 December 2022) 

2 December: A nationally representative survey by Crest Advisory finds that while 73 per cent of young people trust the police, only 36 per cent of black children and teenagers feel the same. (Sky News, 2 December 2022)

2 December: Two West Midlands police officers are suspended as the IOPC launches an investigation into an incident on 18 November when the officers allegedly dragged a half-dressed Muslim woman out of a property from which she was being evicted.  (i News, 2 December 2022)

4 December: The London mayor and the Metropolitan police agree to monitor more than 500 ‘safer schools officers’ in London to ensure they are not disproportionately targeting black children, under a new race action plan that also reveals that black people are seven times more likely to be stopped on suspicion of carrying weapons. (Guardian, 4 December 2022)

5 December: In a suburb of Thessaloniki, Greece, a 16-year-old Romany boy, later identified as Kostas Frangoulis, is left in a critical condition after being shot in the head during a pursuit by the DIAS motorcycle unit that began when he allegedly failed to pay a 20-euro bill at a gas station. A police officer is arrested for attempted manslaughter. (Keep Talking Greece, 5 December 2022; AP News, 5 December 2022; Guardian, 6 December 2022)

6 December: Protesters clash with police after 1,500 people demonstrate in central Thessaloniki, Greece, against the police shooting of Kostas Frangoulis. 100 Roma men block the main road outside the hospital where the boy is being treated. (Al Jazeera, 6 December 2022)


23 November: Former Conservative universities minister Chris Skidmore MP criticises Suella Braverman’s proposal to restrict two-year post-study visas, adding that unless higher education makes the case for international students, the issue will become ‘part of a new culture war’. (Times Higher Education, 23 November 2022)

24 November: UK government security checks in ‘sensitive subjects’ (Academic Technology Approval Scheme) are now taking as long as six months to process, it is revealed, with international students, mostly from China and India, threatened with loss of scholarships and PhD funding as a result. (Times Higher Education, 24 November 2022)

25 November: After the Times reports, in response to record migration figures, that the government is considering a ban on foreign students from all but the top universities, the Higher Education Policy Institute describes the proposal as  ‘totally counterproductive’, and three Conservative former university ministers say the sector should be ‘grown, not shrunk’. (Times Higher Education, 25 November 2022; Observer, 27 November 2022)

26 November: Nepali student Sulav Khadka, who won a scholarship to study at York university, is in immigration limbo, owing thousands for flights and fees, after hostile interrogation at Manchester airport and detention in a Scottish removal centre delays his enrolment until after the cut-off date for this year. (Observer, 26 November 2022)

6 December: SPIOR, an Islamic organisation in Rotterdam, files a discrimination complaint against Dutch education minister Dennis Wiersma, claiming he breached the constitutional ban on discrimination by targeting weekend schools in mosques on the grounds that they are anti-integrationist and anti-democratic. (Dutch News, 6 December 2022) 


30 November: As the latest census reveals that 39 per cent of Muslims live in the most deprived areas of England and Wales, the Muslim Council of Britain urges policymakers to act on the ‘cycle of poverty’ entrapping generations of British Muslims. (Guardian, 30 November 2022)


27 November: A report by the European Roma Grassroots Organisation finds that one in five members of the Roma community suffers from chronic disease, while one in four does not have health insurance. Severe difficulties in accessing health care in numerous member states are noted. (Deutsche Welle, 27 November 2022)


22 November: A new briefing from Focus on Labour Exploitation (FLEX) shows how immigration policies on visas, seasonal workers and weak enforcement of workplace rights increase the risk of exploitation for migrant workers. (FLEX, 22 November 2022)

26 November: The head of the London Fire Brigade says recommendations of the Independent Cultural Review, commissioned after the suicide of Jaden Francois-Esprit, will be fully implemented, as anonymised accounts from over 2,000 staff reveal abuse including a black firefighter having a noose placed above his locker and a Muslim colleague having bacon and sausages stuffed in his pockets. (Guardian, 26 November 2022)

28 November: An employee at London Overground operator Arriva Rail wins a race discrimination claim after his line manager is found to have made ‘belittling and abusive comments’ about his black Caribbean descent. (The HR Director, 28 November 2022)

29 November: A senior government official tells MPs that government inspectors have found cases of debt bondage, the most common form of forced labour, among seasonal agricultural workers on British farms. (Shropshire Star, 29 November 2022)

29 November: An employment tribunal finds that an Indian lecturer at the University of Portsmouth was wrongfully overlooked for a position owing to race discrimination. Dr Kajal Sharma held a five-year fixed-term role from 2016, but her reapplication for the same post was disregarded in November 2020, as statistics show often happens with non-white reapplicants. Compensation is to be finalised. (The Week, 14 December 2022)

2 December: The Indonesian Embassy reports that over 200 fruit pickers in the UK have sought diplomatic help since July because of difficulties finding and retaining work on farms for the duration of their six-month seasonal worker visa, and debts of up to £5000 owed to unlicensed immigration brokers, forcing some into debt bondage. (Guardian, 2 December 2022)

5 December: A report from the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) uncovers widening gender and ethnicity pay gaps among the practices surveyed, with women paid 17 per cent less than men in 2022 (up from 15 per cent), and BME employees paid 21 per cent less than white staff (up from 14 per cent). (Architects Journal, 5 December 2022)

5 December: A survey by Reboot and Coleman Parkes finds that 68 per cent of ethnic minority employees in the UK’s financial services industry experienced discrimination at work in the past year, but only 47 per cent raised the issue with employers, and three-quarters felt that HR offered ineffective responses. (Eastern Eye, 5 December 2022)


While we cannot cover all incidents of racist abuse on sportspersons or their responses, we provide a summary of the most important incidents. For more information follow Kick it Out.

22 November: The Istituto Nazionale Parri, a Milan-based historical research institute, launches the ‘places of fascism’ website ( the first nationwide attempt to document the symbols of Benito Mussolini’s regime that still dot the urban landscape of Italy. (Euractiv, 23 November 2022) 

25 November: England rugby union team coach Richard Cockerill reveals that he supported undocumented rising star Manu Tuilagi’s application for a visa to enable him to avoid deportation in 2009. (Telegraph, 25 November 2022)

28 November: Surinamese organisations in the Netherlands criticise as ‘totally unacceptable’ the lack of clarity and communication shown by the government, after media reports leaked information that the Cabinet is set to apologise for slavery. (Dutch News, 28 November 2022)

28 November: The World Cup’s chief organiser, Hassan Al Thawadi, accuses BBC pundit and World Cup winner Jurgen Klinsmann of racism for saying it is ‘part of Iran’s culture to work the referee’, and Iran’s manager Carlos Queiroz asks Klinsmann to resign from the Qatar 2022 Technical Study Group. (Mirror, 28 November 2022)

29 November: French retail company FNAC is accused of ‘cancel culture’ after it responds to complaints from the national police commissioners’ union (SCPN) and Rassemblement National and withdraws an anti-fascist board game ‘Antifa – Le Jeu’, on the ground that the marketing of the game offends ‘some of our public’. (Euronews, 29 November 2022)

1 December: An open letter organised by the Black Equity Organisation, signed by over 40 celebrities, academics, and MPs, warns of the impact of BBC cuts to local radio stations, and particularly the disproportionate impact they will have on African, Caribbean, and Asian radio shows. (Voice, 1 December 2022)

2 December: In Spain, the Madrid prosecutor’s office says no crime was committed when Vinicius Jr was subjected to racist chants during the Madrid derby in September, although they were disrespectful, since they occurred in the context of ‘maximum rivalry’ within a football match. (Daily Mail, 2 December 2022)

2 December: Fifa officials in Qatar are accused of turning a blind eye as Serbia fans display fascist slogans and sing ‘Kill Albanians’ at their team’s World Cup fixture against Switzerland, which they lose 3-2. Fifa later opens disciplinary proceedings against Serbia. (Guardian, 3 December 2022; Guardian5 December 2022; AP News, 5 December 2022)


For details of court judgements on racially motivated and other hate crimes, see also POLICING | PRISONS | CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM.

22 November: A 36-year-old man from Winchester is found guilty of a racially aggravated assault committed on 16 June. Basingstoke Magistrates’ Court sentences him to serve four weeks in jail and pay £100 in compensation. (Hampshire Chronicle, 22 November 2022)

24 November: British Transport Police launch a CCTV appeal to identify a man who made racist and sexually explicit comments to another passenger on a train from Bradford to Leeds on 30 October. (The Telegraph & Argus, 24 November 2022)

25 November: In Poland, a video goes viral showing American soldiers being abused by notorious neo-Nazi Jon Minadeo, who uses the N-word against a black soldier and tells him to stay away from ‘white women’. Minadeo also posts a video showing him verbally attacking a South Asian man. (Daily Mail, 24 November 2022)

25 November: A 20-year-old man is attacked in Worksop and has hospital treatment for facial injuries. Four men aged 27-50 and a 17-year-old boy are charged with racially aggravated assault two days later. (Worksop Guardian, 27 November 2022) 

26 November: A 56-year-old man is found guilty of assault, disorderly behaviour and malicious damage after headbutting a window, racially abusing a bar manager and threatening a member of staff at a probation office in Jersey. The magistrates’ court sentences him to a total of five months in jail. (Jersey Evening Post, 26 November 2022) 

28 November: North Yorkshire police launch a CCTV appeal to identify a man who racially abused a staff member at a Co-op store in York on 5 November. (York Press, 28 November 2022) 

28 November: Lancashire Constabulary launch a CCTV appeal to identify the perpetrator of a racially aggravated attack in a Costcutter store on 8 November. (LancsLive, 28 November 2022) 

29 November: A 26-year-old man from North Wales admits strangling a woman in a racially aggravated attack and damaging her property between 2 and 7 August in Bangor. Mold Crown Court will sentence him in January, until when he will remain in custody. (North Wales Live, 29 November 2022)

2 December: A report commissioned by Belfast City Council, the Public Health Agency and the Belfast Health Trust reveals that of 125,000 minority ethnic community members surveyed in Belfast, 40 per cent have experienced racist hate crimes, and a similar proportion say their children have faced racist bullying in school. Those who reported the crimes would not do so again. (BBC News, 2 December 2022)

2 December: A 26-year-old man from Gloucester is found guilty of racially aggravated assault on a takeaway worker and customer on 6 March. Gloucester Crown Court sentenced him to eight months, already served on remand. (Punchline, 6 December 2022) 

4 December: A man is racially attacked in a car park in Scarborough by two unidentified young men and needs hospital treatment for a cut nose and disturbed vision. (Scarborough News, 6 December 2022) 

5 December: Ngozi Fulani, founder of charity Sistah Space, reveals that she has been subjected to a barrage of ‘horrific abuse’ on social media after she spoke out against her treatment by the late queen’s senior lady-in-waiting at a Buckingham Palace royal reception who repeatedly asked her where she ‘really came from’. (Guardian, 5 December 2022)

6 December: Dorset Police launch a CCTV appeal to identify perpetrators after a woman in her 40s was racially abused by two men and a woman in a Bournemouth shop on 30 November, then covered in beer by one man and pushed by the other. (Dorset Live, 6 December 2022)

The calendar was compiled with the help of Graeme Atkinson, Sira Thiam, Sophie Chauhan, Louis Ordish and Joseph Maggs. Thanks also to ECRE, the Never Again Association, Stopwatch and The Week in Work, whose regular updates on asylum, migration, far Right, racial violence, employment and policing issues are an invaluable source of information. Find these stories and all others since 2014 on our searchable database, the Register of Racism and Resistance.

Headline image: Members of the Roma community gather outside the law court building in Central Thessaloniki, as the police officer responsible for the shooting of 16-year-old Kostas Frangoulis appears before the district attorney. 6 December 2022. Image credit: Christos Karras.

The Institute of Race Relations is precluded from expressing a corporate view: any opinions expressed are therefore those of the authors.

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