Calendar of Racism and Resistance (14 – 28 February 2023)

Calendar of Racism and Resistance (14 – 28 February 2023)


Written by: IRR News Team

A fortnightly resource for anti-racist and social justice campaigns, highlighting key events in the UK and Europe. Find these stories and all others since 2014 on our searchable database, the Register of Racism and Resistance.


Asylum and migrant rights

12 February: The German government announces a temporary easing of three-month visa conditions for homeless or injured earthquake survivors from Turkey and Syria with close family settled in Germany, who must support them and pay for their subsequent departure. (APNews, 12 February 2023)

13 February: Eight former BBC journalists win a judicial review of the Home Office refusal of their applications to the Afghan Relocations and Assistance Policy (ARAP). (Guardian, 13 February 2023)

16 February: Launching the Safe for Some report in Berlin, Germany, Save the Children criticises the EU’s ‘selective welcome’ for child refugees from Ukraine, with a safe and legal route, but not for children of other nationalities, and calls on the EU to expand the Ukrainian response to all children seeking asylum. (InfoMigrants, 16 February 2023)

16 February: The Initiative Amed Ahmad, which supports the family of a Kurdish man who died in a 2018 fire at Kleve prison, Germany, where he was unlawfully detained, launches a campaign to bring his sister (destitute since the earthquake in Turkey) and brother (currently in a UNHCR camp in Iraq) to Germany, as the reunification of the family would act as ‘reparation’ for the injustice done to them. (ANF News, 16 February 2023)

16 February: Germany’s highest administrative court in Leipzig rules that the immigration authorities acted unlawfully when it searched the phone of an Afghan woman who applied for asylum in 2019 as they should have exhausted less intrusive means to confirm her identity first. (Deutsche Welle, 16 February 2023)

22 February: To tackle the record backlog of 160,000 asylum claims, the Home Office announces nationals of five ‘high asylum grant rate’ countries (Afghanistan, Eritrea, Libya, Syria and Yemen) will receive a 10-page asylum questionnaire with over 50 complex questions to complete in English and returned within 20 working days on pain of deemed withdrawal of the claim. (Guardian, 22 February 2023; Refugee Council, 23 February 2023; Guardian, 27 February 2023) 

23 February: Only 22 Afghan people, including 8 children, have been resettled in the UK via a UNHCR referral under the only open route for Afghan citizens, despite government promises to help them, it is revealed, while 8,633 Afghans came to the UK in small boats in 2022. (Guardian, 23 February 2023)

Borders and internal controls

14 February: The Marine Accident Investigation Branch launches an investigation into the UK’s emergency response to the sinking of a migrant boat in the Channel on 14 December 2022, leading to the deaths of 4 asylum seekers, with 39 rescued by the crew of a fishing vessel. (Independent, 14 February 2023)

17 February: The Bulgarian interior ministry says that the bodies of 18 people have been discovered near Sofia, hidden in a compartment of an abandoned truck transporting timber. Thirty-four people, including five children, have been hospitalised. (Guardian, 17 February 2023)

21 February: Over 100 prominent public figures in Poland sign an open letter calling on the government to end its deadly pushback policy, stating that at least 37 people have been found dead at the Poland-Belarus border since the beginning of the humanitarian crisis. (Wyborcza, 21 February 2023)

24 February: Greece reinforces control of land and sea frontiers, pre-empting the arrival of refugees from Turkish and Syrian earthquake territories with hundreds more border guards, as the migration minister calls for more fences, increased surveillance infrastructure and vows to double the size of 22-mile wall along the land border with Turkey. (Guardian, 26 February 2023)

Reception and detention

10 February: A Syrian mother of six dies following injuries suffered from a suspected arson attack at a refugee accommodation centre in Berlin, Germany in January, as investigations into the fire continue. (InfoMigrants, 23 February 2023) 

14 February: An open letter organised by Together with Refugees and co-signed by more than 100 organisations, in response to the violent attack outside the Knowsley hotel housing asylum seekers, calls on politicians to condemn the violence and strongly criticises the use of inflammatory language and demonising policies that fuel hatred and division. (Independent, 14 February 2023)

15 February: Merseyside Police put in place a range of intensified security measures in response to the far-right attack on a Knowsley asylum hotel, including a daytime curfew for the asylum seekers living there. (Independent, 15 February 2023)

17 February: At an emergency ‘refugee summit’ of the regions and municipalities of Germany, the interior minister announces that although the government will cooperate more closely with the regions, no more money will be made available for refugee accommodation until at least Easter. (Euractiv, 17 February 2023)

18 February: Observer investigations reveal an increase in the kidnapping from Home Office hotels of vulnerable unaccompanied child asylum seekers, who are coerced into criminal gangs, as a method of demanding payment for small boat Channel crossings. (Observer, 18 February 2023)

19 February: A freedom of information request reveals that between April and September 2022, 17 children were detained at the Manston processing centre, and at least 10, who have embarked on legal action, were unlawfully held more than 24 hours. (Guardian, 19 February 2023)

23 February: A Freedom of Information request finds that asylum-seekers in detention centres were paid just £1 an hour by the Home Office to carry out more than a million hours of work over the past five years. (Open Democracy, 23 February 2023)

24 February:  As 380 asylum seekers accommodated in Hotel Killarney, Co Kerry are given notice of removal to new accommodation, uprooting their children from local schools, the government announces that more hotels will cease providing asylum accommodation in the coming weeks. (RTE, 24 February 2023)

27 February: Freedom of Information responses to Medical Justice reveal that Harmondsworth detention centre protests in November 2022 were sparked by serious maintenance failures resulting in detainees being held in inhuman conditions including no light, heat or running water and toilets out of use. (Guardian, 27 February 2023)   

Fences outside the front entrance to Harmondsworth and Colnbrook detention centres, with an entrance sign and security guards in background
Harmondsworth immigration detention centre. Credit: SOAS Detainee Support.

16 February: South Yorkshire Migration and Asylum Action Group hold a demonstration outside Vulcan House reporting centre, Sheffield, in support of an asylum seeker who is threatened with deportation to Zimbabwe after 17 years living in the city. (ShefNews, 16 February 2023)

Crimes of solidarity

18 February: Conservative vice-chair Lee Anderson claims that the charity Care4Calais is part of a multi-million pound industry encouraging asylum seekers to cross the Channel in small boats. The charity responds that it never offers encouragement, only humanitarian aid, activities and ‘simple teas and coffees’. (Guardian, 18 February 2023)

23 February: Italy’s parliament passes a government decree compelling rescue vessels, after a single rescue in the central Mediterranean, to request access to a port and sail there without delay and without searching for other migrant boats in distress, and to provide details of rescue activities. Hours after the law is passed, Médecins sans Frontières says its vessel Geo Barents has been placed in administrative detention for 20 days and MSF fined €10,000. (Euractiv, 24 February 2023)


22 February: Despite finding ‘credible suspicion’ that Shamima Begum was trafficked for sexual exploitation as a child and the authorities allowing her to leave the UK, the Special Immigration Appeals Commission rejects her appeal against deprivation of citizenship, deferring to the home secretary’s decision on national security grounds. Begum’s lawyers say they will pursue ‘every avenue possible’ to challenge the decision. (Independent, 23 February 2023)

Citizenship: from right to privilege. A background paper on the history of citizenship-stripping powers

26 February: Figures obtained by the Observer reveal a sustained increase in challenges to deprivation orders removing British citizenship from July 2019, and records reveal 75 people overturned deprivation orders in 2022, suggesting a sharp increase in the use of these orders. (Observer, 26 February 2023) 


23 February: In Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court rules that the Desiderius Erasmus Foundation, linked to the far-right AfD, should be given a share of state funding earmarked for foundations affiliated to political parties. Not to do so interferes with the AfD’s right to equal opportunities in political competition, the court rules. (Deutsche Welle, 24 February 2023) 

24 February: The flagship Sámi Parliament Act, which was meant to set new standards for indigenous rights, fails to get past the committee stage of the Finnish parliament. (Euronews, 24 February 2023)

28 February: 400 researchers in France back Désinfox-Migrations’ call for a citizens’ convention on migration in order to enable an informed public debate, stating that the ‘great replacement’ of the French population is a myth. (Le Monde, 28 February 2023)


With anti-migrant, anti-Muslim, anti-equalities, anti-abortion, misogynistic and anti-LGBTQI activities increasingly interlinking, we now incorporate information on the Christian Right as well as the religious Right generally.

14 February: The Global Project Against Hate and Extremism publishes a report detailing the activities of 43 far-right groups in France, mostly white nationalist anti-immigrant and anti-Muslim organisations, but also anti-LGBTQ+, antisemitic, anti-Roma groups. (GPAHE, 14 February 2023)

16 February: Patriotic Alternative distributes leaflets saying ‘You pay Migrants stay’ before attending a meeting in Dunstable for residents to air concerns about the arrival of asylum seekers at a nearby hotel. Police advise asylum seekers to stay in the hotel for their own security, with unconfirmed reports of a curfew. (Guardian, 17 February 2023)

17 February: In France, three members of the far-right and racist Facebook Barjols group are convicted under anti-terrorist laws of a plot to stab French president Macron at a 2018 First World War commemoration. Other co-defendants are acquitted. (Guardian, 17 February 2023)

17 February: In Sweden, the police, citing security concerns, refuse permission for a rally where the Quran was set to be burnt. The organisers appeal. (Euronews, 17 February 2023)

18 February: In Ireland, following far-right protests outside asylum hotels and direct provision centres an estimated 20,000 people take part in ‘Ireland For All Solidarity demonstration’ in support of refugees, declaring that ‘right-wing groups don’t speak for us’ and are outnumbered by support for an open Ireland. (Irish Examiner, 18 February 2023)

18 February: ‘Migrant hunters’, often posing as journalists, made 253 visits to hotels housing asylum seekers in 2022, more than double the figure for the previous year, with visits centring on Dover, northwest England and Yorkshire, says Hope not Hate, while according to the Centre for Countering Digital Hate, anti-migrant demonstrations have been viewed almost 44 million times on Twitter and Youtube. (Daily Express, 18 February 2023)

18 February: A weekend of counter-mobilisations against the far Right includes opposition to a Patriotic Alternative and English Constitution Party protest outside a hotel in Manvers, Rotherham. Cornwall council issues a statement asking people to stay away from a far-right protest on an undisclosed date outside a Newquay hotel. (Yorkshire Live, 18 February 2023)

A banner saying No to Fascism Yes to Refugees at the counter-protest against a far-right demo outside an asylum seeker hotel in Rotherham.
A counter-protest against a far-right demo outside an asylum seeker hotel in Rotherham. Credit: Tim Dennell, Flickr.

21 February: A man who joined National Action aged 13 is convicted of two counts of possessing information likely to be useful for terrorism after being caught with bomb-making instructions on his phone. (Daily Mail, 21 February 2023)

21 February: Met counter-terror police investigate National Action death threats sent to TV commentators India Willoughby, who is transgender, and Dr Shola Mos-Shogbamimu. (BBC News, 21 February 2023)

24 February: Police raiding the homes of two men suspected of projecting ‘White Lives Matter’ and other racist statements onto the Erasmus bridge in Rotterdam, Netherlands, discover a crossbar and parts of a 3D-printed gun. (Dutch News, 24 February 2023) 

25 February: A weekend of Patriotic Alternative protests against asylum seekers and pro- refugee counter-mobilisations include hotels in Skegness, Lincolnshire; Newquay, Cornwall; and Long Eaton, Nottinghamshire. In Lewisham, south-east London, around 30 members of Turning Point UK, protesting a ‘drag queen’ storytelling event in the Honor Oak pub, are vastly outnumbered. (Guardian, 25 February 2023; Daily Mail, 25 February 2023; Daily Mail, 25 February 2023)

25 February: In Saint-Brévin, in the Loire-Atlantique region of France, pro-refugee supporters mobilise as 100 far-right demonstrators including Reconquest party members protest against the establishment of a reception centre for asylum seekers in the city. (News in France, 25 February 2023)

25 February: An annual torchlit neo-nazi parade in Sofia, Bulgaria, in honour of a wartime pro-Nazi general is banned after an international outcry. (ABC News, 25 February 2023)

26 February: Documents leaked to Hope Not Hate reveal that New Issues Group, a secretive organisation operating out of the House of Lords including Baroness Cox and Malcolm Pearson, has been collaborating with far-right activists for more than a decade, with For Britain Movement candidate Anne Marie Waters invited to draft at least one parliamentary question. (Guardian, 26 February 2023)


Cases of police racism and sexism – and the way they are dealt with – are often linked, and as a reflection of this, this section includes information on police misogyny.

14 February: Three Metropolitan police officers are cleared of assaulting black teenager Gabriel Silvera in Tooting in April 2022. While one officer was ‘heavy-handed’, they all acted within the parameters of what is lawful, says the magistrate. (BBC News, 14 February 2023)

15 February: Following a legal challenge by JENGbA, the CPS agrees to monitor data on the ethnicity, age, sex and disability of those prosecuted under the joint enterprise doctrine. Prosecutions presented as ‘gang-related’ will also be monitored to see whether the CPS’s own guidance on gang-related cases is followed. (Liberty, 15 February 2023; Guardian, 16 February 2023)

15 February: Four police forces, Thames Valley, Sussex, West Midlands and Merseyside, announce that Serious Violence Reduction Orders, allowing for suspicionless stop and search for those with convictions for knife offences or offences associated with gang affiliation, will be trialled in their areas from next month. (Telegraph, 15 February 2023)

15 February: Following a case brought by a coalition of NGOs, the Dutch Court of Appeal finds the Royal Netherlands Marechausee police guilty of racial discrimination by using ethnicity as a criterion for border stops, a ‘particularly serious form of discrimination’ that leads to ‘stigmatisation and feelings of pain and frustration’, a judge says. (Controle Alt Delete press release, 15 February 2023)

16 February: An HM Inspectorate report finds Exeter prison unsafe, with the highest level of self-harm in all male reception prisons. (HM Chief Inspector of Prisons, 16 February 2023)

16 February: Following a legal action by the German Society for Civil Rights, the Federal Constitutional Court rules that the use by Hamburg and Hesse of automated analysis of personal data for crime prevention is unconstitutional. Legislation must now be rewritten so that technology is only used when an ‘Identifiable danger’ exists. (Deustche Welle, 16 February 2023) 

16 February: West Midlands Police Professional Standards Department says it is reviewing a ‘troubling incident’ in which an unidentified 14-year-old boy, a pupil at Ark St Albans Academy, Birmingham, was hurt after being restrained by the school liaison officer, who no longer works at the school. (Birmingham Live, 16 February 2023) 

16 February: The Met police specialist casework team announces that it will reopen the inquiry into the death of Asian student Ricky Reel, whose body was found in the River Thames 25 years ago, shortly after he and his friends were attacked by two white youths. (BBC News, 16 February 2023)

16 February: In Germany, a police officer is charged with the manslaughter of Mouhamed Dramé, 16, who was holding a knife to his own stomach and was pepper sprayed, tasered and then shot in the upper body and head with a sub-machine gun in Dortmund. Three other police officers are charged with lesser offences, as is a senior officer who authorised the use of pepper spray and tasers. (WDR, 16 February 2023)

19 February: Launching a new report on deaths in custody, INQUEST reveals that black people in Britain are seven times more likely than white people to die following restraint by police, and that official data, by using a limited dataset, had underestimated the number of restraint-related deaths. (Guardian, 19 February 2023)

19 February: In the Czech Republic a police officer is charged with manslaughter through negligence of a 17-year-old Roma boy in Uherský Brod in May 2022. The teenager, who had taken drugs, suffocated during a restraint in which the officer pressed his full body weight onto his throat, making breathing impossible. (Romea, 19 February 2023)

20 February: A media investigation reveals that only seven of sixteen German states record the number of people who die in police custody, with the only federal data available relating to those shot dead by police. No data broken down by ethnicity is available in any statistics. (Zeit Online, 20 February 2023 

20 February: After an inquest rules that the ‘Plymouth shooter’ Jim Davidson, unlawfully killed five people, relatives of the dead accuse Devon and Cornwall police of incompetence and other failings. Granting a gun licence to Davidson, who had a known history of violence and a fascination with incel culture, was a ‘licence to kill’, they say. (Guardian, 20 February 2023)

20 February: The first phase of the undercover policing public inquiry (1968-1982) finds that the Special Demonstration Squad’s infiltration of left-wing groups caused ‘outrage and pain’; the SDS acted in a racist and sexist way; and that its intrusions into campaigners’ private lives were not justified. (Guardian, 20 February 2023)

21 February: A disciplinary tribunal hears how the ‘Secret Squirrel Shit’ WhatsApp group, including eight police officers from the Met’s South East Command Unit, shared racist, homophobic and sexist messages, including praising a rapist, offensive remarks about the Holocaust and abuse of disabled people. (Guardian, 21 February 2023) 

22 February: In Copenhagen, Denmark, a ‘visitation zone’ (allowing for suspension of normal checks on stop and search) in large parts of the Nørrebro and Nordvest neighbourhoods is extended on the ground that 20 knives which could potentially have been used in gang-related crimes were seized in 14 days. (The Local, 22 February 2023) 

23 February: A new report by the World Health Organisation finds that one-third of prisoners in 36 European countries have mental health problems and the most common cause of death in prison is suicide. (Inside Times, 23 February 2023)

24 February: It emerges that Giles Kitchener, a Met police officer sacked for sharing homophobic and misogynistic messages including a joke about Sarah Everard’s murder, had previously lied to the High Court in a case about racist assaults by police from the Territorial Support Group.  (Evening Standard, 24 February 2023)

24 February: Data shows disproportionality in the most extreme form of stop and search, which allows for removal of outer clothing. Of More Thorough Searches Intimate Parts Exposed (MTIPS), 46% involved Black people (reduced from 56% following the shooting of Chris Kaba), and 16% involved Asian people, with the reason given for stops overwhelmingly linked to drugs. (SW Londoner, 24 February 2023)

25 February: FOI requests reveal that the number of police officers in England and Wales facing criminal charges has leapt by 590% since 2012, with one in 100 officers facing a criminal charge last year and the Police Federation emerging as a major obstacle to dealing with racism and misogyny in the police. (Observer, 25 February 2023)

27 February: A pre-inquest review of the death in police custody of Mouayed Bashir in Newport two years ago opens at Gwent Coroner’s Court, with the coroner rejecting representations from police for further delays for possible applications from the force requesting anonymity for its officers. The inquest will commence in January 2024. (Wales Online, 27 February 2023) 


22 February: Pervasive racism and discrimination is the primary root cause of suicide in the Irish Traveller community, according to research commissioned by the Ballyfermot Traveller Action Project and other groups. Traveller men are seven times more likely to die by suicide and Traveller women six times more likely. (RTE, 22 February 2023)


11 February: Department for Education figures for England, uncovered through a freedom of information request, reveal that 7,403 school pupils were suspended in 2022 over racist incidents, including racially motivated assaults, vile language and social media taunts – a 50% increase on the previous year. (Daily Mirror, 11 February 2023)

21 February: A campaign, demanding an apology and compensation from the government,  is launched by ‘children of the Windrush generation’,  wrongly labelled ‘educationally subnormal’ and sent to special schools in the 1960s and ‘70s. (Guardian,  21 February 2022)

24 February: In Vienna, Austria, a petition by staff and students at the Central European University asks managers to reverse a decision to close the Olive Open Learning Initiative, a refugee access programme. Authorities’ promises to build a bigger successor are criticised for lack of transparency. (THE, February 2023) 

24 February: Roger Watson, head of the National Conference of University Professors, defends his decision to invite Toby Young of the Free Speech Union to give its annual lecture. (THE, 24 February 2023)


21 February: Citizens Advice analysis suggests that 2.7m households in England struggle with damp, mould or excessive cold, with 1.6 million children living in privately rented homes in such conditions, suggesting that private housing landlords should be held to new standards for social housing, set after the death of Awaab Ishak. (Guardian, 21 February 2023)


16 February: A report from the Association for Graduate Careers and Advisory Services (AGCAS) finds that three-quarters of international students on post-study work visas find graduate-level employment, contradicting Home Office claims that most are unemployed or in low-skill jobs. (Times Higher Education, 16 February 2023)  

20 February: A senior Black nurse in the north-west of England wins a ‘landmark’ tribunal case against the NHS after it is found that she faced ‘institutional racism’ in the form of discrimination, harassment and victimisation from her employer between 2019 and 2021. (Nursing Times, 24 February 2023)

21 February: The British Medical Association calls for urgent action to confront racism against Black nurses in the NHS, following reports that one in three of its Black and minority ethnic staff faces bullying or discrimination. (The Voice, 21 February 2023)  

23 February:  The general secretary of the App Drivers and Couriers Union calls a rally to protest gig economy exploitation after Deliveroo continued to send demands to rider Mohamed to complete his delivery and to accept more orders after he collapsed outside Meranti House in east London. (New Statesman, 27 February 2023)


While we cannot cover all incidents of racist abuse on sportspersons or their responses, we provide a summary of the most important incidents. For more information follow Kick it Out.

20 February: Three years after Bafta’s review into racism the organisation is criticised for its all-white winners during the 2023 ceremony. Equity’s equality and diversity officer, Ian Manborde, states that Bafta is only one part of an industry that has wide exclusionary practices. (Guardian, 20 February 2023)  

22 February: It is revealed that the government gave over £40,000 to a Christian charity, Zion Projects, whose chair described Islam as ‘demonic’. The grant was one of sixteen ‘Faith New Deal’ grants given to religious groups; no Muslim group received funds although 21 applied. (National Secular Society, 22 February 2023)

25 February: Research highlights that referees in Italy’s top football division give more yellow and red cards to darker-skinned players than lighter-skinned ones, even while the latter were found to play more aggressively. (Observer, 25 February 2023) 


For details of court judgements on racially motivated and other hate crimes, see also POLICING | PRISONS | CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM.

14 February: After suffering two racist firebomb attacks in January 2021 and April 2022, the Belfast Multi-Cultural Association announces it is selling its premises. The association also criticises police for questioning service users about their immigration status when they report racist abuse, information reportedly passed on to the Home Office. (Belfast Media, 14 February 2023)

14 February: A 31-year-old man is convicted of attacking two men and racially abusing another on a Transpennine Express train between Leeds and Dewsbury in December 2020. (Wigan Today, 14 February 2023) 

14 February: West Midlands Police launch a hate crime investigation after a Birmingham City football player is subjected to racial abuse during a match against Cardiff City at St Andrews. (West Midlands Police, 15 February 2023) 

15 February: The Met Police launch an appeal to identify the male perpetrator of a religiously-aggravated assault on a woman wearing a hijab on a 207 bus between White City and Uxbridge Road on 27 November 2022. (Ealing News, 15 February 2023) 

16 February: Falkirk Sheriff Court sentences a 51-year-old man from Grangemouth to a year’s community payback of 108 hours of unpaid work for threatening behaviour, racial and homophobic abuse of a police officer and urinating in a police vehicle in June 2022. (Falkirk Herald, 21 February 2023) 

 17 February: A man is hospitalised after being assaulted and racially abused in Gloucester. A 52-year-old male suspect is arrested. (ITV News, 17 February 2023)  

19 February: Glasgow Sheriff Court issues a five-year restraining order against a 26-year-old man convicted of assaulting and racially abusing a police officer, who arrested him for assaulting his partner and throwing a bottle from a building in Knightswood in July 2022. (Glasgow Live, 19 February 2023) 

22 February: Worcestershire magistrates fine a 41-year-old man £1,750 for trespassing on a railway line and racially aggravated threatening behaviour towards a police officer at Wolverhampton railway station in May 2022. (Shropshire Star, 22 February 2023)  

22 February: Wrexham magistrates sentence a 36-year-old man to 12 weeks’ imprisonment suspended for one year and £230 in fines and costs, for three counts of racially aggravated alarm or harassment committed in Wrexham in October 2022. (The Leader, 23 February 2023)

24 February: Carlisle magistrates sentence a 28-year-old man to 20 weeks in jail and orders him to pay £100 compensation for racially aggravated common assault, after he spat at and punched a security guard at a music festival in Lowther in July 2022. (News & Star, 24 February 2023)

25 February: A 28-year-old woman is attacked by a group of unidentified young men in central Pudsey. She is racially abused and spat at before one punches her in the face, knocking her to the ground. (Telegraph & Argus, 2 March 2023)

25 February: A bus driver is racially abused, grabbed and punched in the nose by a passenger riding between Fareham and Portchester. (Southern Daily Echo, 6 March 2023)

The calendar was compiled with the help of Graeme Atkinson, Margaret McAdam, Sophie Chauhan, Louis Ordish and Joseph Maggs. Thanks also to ECRE, the Never Again Association, Stopwatch and The Week in Work, whose regular updates on asylum, migration, far Right, racial violence, employment and policing issues are an invaluable source of information. Find these stories and all others since 2014 on our searchable database, the Register of Racism and Resistance.

Feature: Counter-protest held outside the Honor Oak pub in Lewisham, 25 February 2023. Image credit: @ferdosnandos

The Institute of Race Relations is precluded from expressing a corporate view: any opinions expressed are therefore those of the authors.

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